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Second Grade Math
Concepts like addition and subtraction remain an important theme in second grade math, as do time and money. Fractions, place value, and graphing are also fundamental second grade skills. By the end of the year, your child should be able to:
- Understand how place value is used to represent whole numbers
- Use concrete models of hundreds, tens, and ones to show a given number
- Use place value to read, write, compare, and order whole numbers to 999
- Compare numbers up to 999 using the symbols for greater than, less than, and equal to (>, <, =)
- Count to 1000
- Skip-count by 2s, 5s, 10s, and 100s
- Add and subtract within 100
- Describe how fractions are used to name parts of whole objects or sets of objects
- Use models to represent fractions
- Determine if a fraction is closer to 0, ½, or 1
- Recall basic addition and subtraction facts to 18
- Model addition and subtraction of two-digit numbers with objects, pictures, words, and numbers
- Determine the value of a group of coins up to one dollar
- Model, create, and describe multiplication and division problems using concrete objects
- Find patterns in numbers
- Use fact families to remember basic addition and subtraction facts; for example, 7+5=12, 5+7=12, 12-5=7, 12-7=5.
- Use patterns to make predictions
- Describe characteristics of figures such as circles, polygons, spheres, cones, cylinders, prisms, and pyramids
- Describe how different shapes are alike and different
- Cut two-dimensional figures apart and identify the new geometric figures formed
- Use a number line
- Read a thermometer
- Read and write times shown on analog and digital clocks
- Describe activities that take approximately one second, one minute, and one hour
- Organize data to make it useful for interpreting information
- Construct picture graphs and bar-type graphs
- Draw conclusions and answer questions based on graphs
- Use data to describe events as more likely or less likely
Second Grade Reading
In second grade, your child will be building on the reading skills acquired in first grade. While there is still a strong emphasis on the mechanics of reading—understanding common spelling patterns, learning how to apply prefixes and suffixes—there is a deepened focus on concepts like making predictions about a reading or identifying its main idea. By the end of second grade, your child should be able to:
- Identify parts of a story, like beginning and ending
- Use information from the illustrations and words in a story to understand its characters, setting, and plot
- Answer who, what, where, when, why, and how about the events in a story
- Identify parts of a word, including single letters, consonant blends (thr, spl), and vowel combinations (ie, ou)
- Recognize common spelling patterns (-ight, -ant)
- Read about 300 high-fluency sight words
- Identify common prefixes (pre-, dis-) and suffixes (-ly, -less, -ful)
- Understand abbreviations (Mrs., St.)
- Read and write contractions (can’t, couldn’t, don’t)
- Make predictions about a story
- Know the difference between literal and non-literal language
- Use a dictionary and glossary
- Alphabetize a list of words to the second letter
- Identify the main idea in a reading
- Describe the order of events in a story
- Identify the differences and purposes in different genres, such as fiction, non-fiction, and poetry
Second Grade Activities
Here are some simple activities to try with your second grader:
- When reading a story or watching a television show together, challenge your child to predict what will happen next. Ask questions about his or her reasoning. When the story is finished, compare the prediction with the outcome.
- Review high-frequency words as often as possible. The Flash Kids Complete Book of Sight Words offers practice is hundreds of these words.
- Keep a children’s dictionary handy. Every time your child encounters a new word, whether in reading or conversation, encourage him or her to look up the word.
- Give your second-grader lots of opportunities to alphabetize—names on an invitation list, books on your library shelf, the DVDs in your movie collection.
- Have your child choose a science topic of particular interest to him or her—tornadoes, for example, or ladybugs. Over the course of several days, have your child write a short story, a non-fiction essay, and a poem about the topic. Have your child make a decorative cover and staple the writings together in a book. Discuss how each piece of writing is different from the others.
- Practice addition and subtraction facts as often as possible. Try using Flash Kids Addition Flashcards and Flash Kids Subtraction Flashcards to do timed reviews. See how many problems your child can accurately solve in one minute. Do this nightly and chart the results. Be sure to praise your child’s progress.
- Get a basic thermometer to hang outside. Every morning, have your child guess the temperature. Then use the thermometer to check the guess.
- Create simple riddles involving two- and three-dimensional shapes. For example, say, “I am a shape with three sides and no base. What am I? “ When your child guesses correctly, he or she has to make up a riddle for you to solve.
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